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Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Carotid Atherosclerosis in a Mixed Cohort of HIV-Infected and Uninfected Ugandans

  • 2017/01/01
Type of publication
  • Articles
  • Feinstein
  • M.J.; Kim
  • J.H.; Bibangambah
  • P.; Sentongo
  • R.; Martin
  • J.N.; Tsai
  • A.C.; Bangsberg
  • D.R.; Hemphill
  • L.; Triant
  • V.A.; Boum
  • Y.; Hunt
  • P.W.; Okello
  • S.; Siedner
  • M.J.
  • HIV

Preventable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are responsible for the majority of CVD-related deaths, and are increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected persons taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Simplified tools such as the American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (iCVH) construct may identify and prognosticate CVD risk in resource-limited settings. No studies have evaluated iCVH metrics in sub-Saharan Africa or among HIV-infected adults. Thus, the central aim of this study was to compare levels of iCVH metrics and their correlations with carotid atherosclerosis for HIV-infected adults versus uninfected controls in a well-phenotyped Ugandan cohort. We analyzed the prevalence of iCVH metrics in a mixed cohort of HIV-infected persons on stable ART and uninfected, population-based comparators in Mbarara, Uganda. We also assessed the validity of iCVH by correlating iCVH values with common carotid intima media thickness (CCIMT). HIV-infected persons had a mean of 4.9 (SD 1.1) iCVH metrics at ideal levels versus 4.3 (SD 1.2) for uninfected controls (p = .002). This difference was largely driven by differences in blood pressure, blood glucose, and diet. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, each additional iCVH metric at an ideal level was associated with a significant 0.024 mm decrease in CCIMT (p < .001).HIV-infected persons on ART in rural Uganda had more iCVH metrics at ideal levels than uninfected persons. The difference appeared driven by factors that are putatively influenced by access to routine medical care. Composite scores of iCVH metrics were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and more predictive of atherosclerosis for uninfected persons.