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Higher Art Adherence is Associated with Lower Systemic Inflammation in Treatment-Naive Ugandans Who Achieve Virologic Suppression

  • 2018/01/16
Type of publication
  • Articles
Authors
  • Castillo-Mancilla JR
  • Morrow M
  • Boum Y
  • Byakwaga H
  • Haberer JE
  • Martin JN
  • Bangsberg D6
  • Mawhinney S
  • Musinguzi N
  • Huang Y
  • Tracy RP
  • Burdo TH
  • Williams K
  • Muzoora C
  • Hunt PW
  • Siedner MJ
Themes
  • Others
 
BACKGROUND:
Residual systemic inflammation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ART adherence and inflammation in Ugandans living with HIV who were predominantly receiving nevirapine-based ART with a thymidine analog backbone and were virologically suppressed by conventional assays.
 
METHODS:
Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, soluble (s)CD14, sCD163, the kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio, in addition to CD8 T-cell activation, were measured at baseline and 6 months after ART initiation in treatment-naïve adults who achieved an undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL) at their 6-month visit. Adherence was measured through medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and calculated as the ratio of observed/prescribed device openings per participant. We fit adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association between ART adherence and the log-transformed plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers.
 
RESULTS:
We evaluated 282 participants, median age 35 years, 70% women. The median (IQR) adherence was 93 (84, 98) %. In the adjusted analyses, for every 10% increase in average ART adherence, we found a 15% (P<0.0001, 95% CI -21.0, -7.9), 11% (P=0.017, -18.3, -2.0) and 3% (P=0.028, -5.0, -0.3) decrease in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14, respectively.
 
CONCLUSIONS:
Higher ART adherence was associated with lower levels of biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation and coagulopathy among Ugandans living with HIV who achieved viral suppression shortly after ART initiation. This suggests that ART adherence could have biological consequences beyond viral suppression. Whether ART adherence optimization in virologically-suppressed individuals could reduce residual inflammation remains unknown.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.