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Cholera in pregnancy: outcomes from a specialized cholera treatment unit for pregnant women in Léogâne, Haiti

  • 2013/08/15
Type de publication
  • Articles
Auteurs
  • Ciglenecki I
  • Bichet M
  • Tena J
  • Mondesir E
  • Bastard M
  • Tran NT
  • Antierens A
  • Staderini N
Thèmes
  • Maladies diarrhéiques
BACKGROUND
The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19(th) century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011.
 
METHODS
Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors.
 
RESULTS
263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5-35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1-23.8, p = 0.041).
 
CONCLUSION
This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration status due to cholera could be beneficial for patients, especially in large epidemics.